If there are gremlins, then we would expect that whenever we stepped on the cracks of the sidewalk during a day something bad will happen. Carbon atoms are biological Ferraris. Weeks go by without seeing any search and rescue ships or planes. You come back later and the coffee is gone. Our unit on the philosophy of religion and the existence of god continues with Thomas Aquinas. 3. 2. Could be. Correspondingly, we must come up with an Evil Genius to match the disorders as effects. Modal cosmological argument, also known as the argument from … How are the laws of the universe purposeful? Rather, a Designer gave each part of Likewise, with the universe and ourselves, we could go on forever coming up with half-baked reasons or explanations of its existence and why things are the way they are. In this argument, he tends to explain causes and effects, in general, all over the universe. In fact, the effects could be self-caused; they are just there. Therefore, there are gremlins. Consider the following. Many other lines of reasoning have been used, but the three most significant you should know are the creation (“cosmological”) argument, the design (“teleological”) argument and the moral argument… At the end of the third month, you have pretty well explored the island except for one small cove at the northern end. There is wall to wall carpeting, a kitchen with a stove and microwave oven, a TV, hi-fi stereo, a comfortable sofa, indirect lighting, beautiful paintings and sculptures and a hot-tub. When you get to the cove you notice a cave in one side of the hill that fronts the cove. It follows from the above that humans could not have created Cutie. Premise 1. For every effect or order which admits of design, there must be a cause which sufficiently explains the effect. And, we know that the premises of an inductive argument can be true, yet the conclusion still be denied, which is what happens with the teleological argument. Hume: Are these mere random events thrown together by chance to produce order, design and beauty, but which have no cause? Put another way, contingent things require at least one necessary thing to explain them. "Ah," you say. Moreover, reaching conclusions by analogies may not turn out to be as satisfying as we would hope. Why? That there are effects in the world does no guarantee that the creator of the effects is still around. The cosmological argument is a deductive argument that argues that the world (the cosmos) cannot sufficiently explain its own existence; God is necessary to explain the existence of the world. That is all the event that is needed. Everyone agrees that there are orders and design in the universe. the changing of the seasons or the human eye; P2: Things that exhibit order and complexity have designers; C: The universe has a designer a.k.a. Cutie does the same with respect to the Master. Both involve inductive and a posteriori reasoning, and both revolve around the fact that natural processes self-evidently change, which for all we know is the one true constant that itself doesn’t undergo the formality of change. There are three major arguments used to “prove” God’s existence. "Uncaused Cause"), and that's God. Humans have brains in order to prefect themselves. The argument went along these lines: Some things are caused Anything that’s caused has to be caused by something else (since nothing causes itself). "Because I have to work hard to pay for the system," I shout back stamping my foot. The obvious answer is that there is someone else on the island with you who is responsible for these things, but who is reluctant for some reason to reveal him/herself to you. … Believe it or not, many homicide trials are confounded by conflicting eye-witness testimonies. "Wait a minute. Now, the second cosmological argument of Aquinas was a lot like his first one. What or who made the Big Bang possible, given that it and the world just do not explain themselves? God, considered as an effect, not a cause, is just as contingent as the world. How are there so many of these biologically beautiful things, these biological Ferraris? She is now doing an air-guitar routine. Let me tell a story as an aid of exposition. Without proteins, there would be no life. the watch such that each component has a specific purpose. The world simply does not explain itself. Conclusion. The reason we're only scratching the surface now is that we want to have an overview at various arguments for the existence of God so we know what are the basic forms and basic types of objections. “Motion” for “Cause” and you have Aquinas’ First “Way” (also cosmological). This argument has been around for a long time; in fact, ancient Greek philosophers like Plato and Aristotle discussed it and even mentioned it in books. But wait. Imagine yourself walking down the street one day and there is a brand new Ferrari. Finally discuss the problem evolution brings to this type of proof. Therefore, there must be a First Cause (an Designer God is not necessarily the God of Western religion. Let's look at a synopsis of Cutie's argument to gain insight into a kind of argument which we may find useful. The argument from indirect experience. Just think. (The teleological argument or argument from design) 1. Option (1) is Aquinas, William Paley But, let us take a look at one very special kind of atom, a carbon atom. The cosmological argument. "Why do you want me to turn it down? 1 is compatible with all states of affairs. Here's the argument in a "Reader's Digest" form of the cosmological argument (cosmos means the world or whole) for the existence of God. The Cosmological and Teleological Arguments Our Judgement of the Teleological Argument While we know that the universe is very beautiful, there are explanations as to why that is. Unlike the ontological argument, which appeals only to highly sophisticated philosophers who delight in highly abstract deductive reasoning, cosmological and design arguments figure prominently in the argumentative support that everyday working theists give for their faith. Even our own being cannot be explained without God. Just how many atoms are we talking about? infinitely backward, or (2) there is a First (Uncaused) Cause. Most scientists and detectives use such a method of relying on indirect evidence. But, of course, there is Asimov's story of Cutie to return and haunt us. It has a valence of +4 and is able to do spectacular things in virtue of its ability to form covalent bonds. There are so many that we cannot imagine the number. Effects can last in many cases longer than their causes. says Premise 1 is unknowable. Premise 3: The chain of causality cannot extend infinitely backward. It Why? We have no corresponding experience of Gods. The fact that the universe exists means that somebody must have created it in the first place, and this somebody is most likely God. Again, you try to find someone about, but your efforts are all in vain. "But, it's not needless. If it were not for God, the world, with us and our experiences, wouldn't be. The Teleological argument for the existence of a higher power is very similar to the cosmological argument. 1. The universe is like a watch: it contains God must exist, for only He could create such laws and man. Legitimate concepts must be Talk about a beautiful "community sharing!" Therefore, he is a bad dude. Neither the world, nor any experience of it can explain sufficiently that they exist. Our sensory experience of God could be only a hallucination. The cosmological argument is based on contingency (dependent on something else) and points out that things come into existence because something has caused them to happen. O.K. For days this goes on, and you are never successful in locating anyone, not even when new paintings appear on a wall. "But, why. How so? These three arguments are referred to as a cosmological proof, a teleological proof, and an argument from design. Design Argument (the universe shows evidence of design, a designer must exist). Are there similar arguments to show that God exists? 2 embodies a false dilemma: both options are problematic. The answer is God. Premise 1: and Darwin: The Teleological Argument assumes that any orderly outcome is the AsHume’s interlocutor Cleanthes put it, we seem to see “theimage of mind reflected on us from innumerable objects” innature. "The idea is that it takes a "purposer" to have purpose, and so, where we see things obviously intended for a purpose, we can assume that those things were made for a reason. Obviously, there is a connection between certainty and experience or sense data; certainty in an argument tends to decrease the more we rely on sense data. to take the analogy? 4. First Way. Write. Natural and Revealed Theology: Kalam Cosmological Argument. P1: There is order and complexity in the universe: e.g. Prosecuting attorneys tend to avoid them unless they are truly reliable. Probabilistic arguments. Can we be sure that the maker of these items is still around? This chapter focuses on examples of the big three arguments for God's existence, the cosmological, the ontological, and the teleological, to use the terms that Kant invented. They are the laws of nature and man, especially his theoretical, moral and aesthetic powers. B. But we don't. There are two main forms of cosmological argument, the modal and temporal. No detective in his right mind would answer yes to these questions. What do we mean by saying that there are orders and designs that are apparent? Hume: Do these things simply explain themselves? The argument that God designed the universe, because everything is so intricately made in its detail that it could not have happened by chance. How is He a necessary thing, while everything else is contingent; how is God's existence necessary or self-guaranteeing, but that of the world and the things in it is only contingent and not self-guaranteeing?". Gravity. Cosmological argument, Form of argument used in natural theology to prove the existence of God. Substitute AS Religious Studies Revision: The Teleological Argument AO1 Material: i.e. We know the following. We get bad behavior from John. I am holding my fingers in my ears by this point. 2 is to 12 as x is to 24. Carbon atoms and humans require a satisfactory explanation. It is obvious when you examine a watch In mathematics, the method works because all of the components are precise. PLAY. God is the necessary being which explains the world, our being in it and our experiences of it. In terms of a chemical picture, this type of sharing is the equivalent of a Mona Lisa. Second, we can note that there are disorders that seem to be as prevalent as orders. The cosmological and teleological argument both start with some contingent feature of the actual world and argue that the best or only explanation of that feature is that it was produced by an intelligent and powerful supernatural being. We step on the cracks of a sidewalk on various days, and bad things happen each of those days. You yell, search, rattle pans --do everything in your power to attract attention. She likes to play it. We would expect that the more evidence we had for a thesis, the more probable the truth of the thesis would be. Cosmological and teleological arguments (thegodlessnorth.wordpress.com) ‘What is the Teleological Argument?’ in 162 Words (fromessextowessex.com) A response to William Lane Craig’s philosophical arguments for God’s existence (thedrunkscholar.wordpress.com) 5 Types of Apologetics (whybelievethat.wordpress.com) ‘what goes in part a)?’ How the argument goes. Humans with their composite carbon atoms are just too complexly elegant to be the result of causes that admit of no mind or intelligence. Let's talk about the teleological argument or the so-called argument from design. There are laws and orders in the world which do not explain their own existence. There are certain orders and designs in the universe that are not self-explanatory. Previously, we have encountered arguments that relied a lot upon sense experience for truth-value. C. The argument for a sufficient explanation. You find food and water, recover your strength, build a hut and survive. Premise 3. Humans are not as perfect or great an instrument as Cutie, who, obviously, has superior design for the important tasks of running the station. Either (1) the chain of causes extends Neither Descartes nor anybody else has proved … There must be a further reason?". In fact, the eye-witness testimony could actually be left out, for eyewitness testimony is not as "factual" as material evidence. But, as we noted, God is an external object and, if we are still going along with Descartes (which we are), we know that sense data is highly suspicious. John's bad behavior may be from some external coercion; he may not be bad, but is being forced to do wrong things. result of conscious intention or design. monumental issue, and some of them have gone so far as to try to prove the existence of God from a logical standpoint. More than we can imagine. They just didn't happen. Take a look at your finger. But, the form of the argument is fallacious as a deductive argument. Tennant published his Philosophical Theology, which was a “bold endeavour to combine scientific and theological thinking”. But, when we use analogies with ambiguous definitions and unclear relational properties, the conclusion reflects that imprecision. nothing in the universe is here by chance. That sounds strange. Rather, the watchmaker designed Problems with the cosmological argument; what if we consider God as an effect? Anyway you look at it, if we are after certainty in a conclusion, we need to rely on valid deductive reasoning in a pure form more than experience and inductive reason. Just turn down the volume." Do you think Tennant’s solution avoids these difficulties? Considered are effects, the laws of the universe and man require a cause. In the same way, it seems obvious that Conclusion. Cosmological argument is the reasoning that the being of the universe is powerful proof for the existence of a God who made it. For Big Bang believers, the important question to ask is what went on years before the Big Bang? Your being a master detective, what would be your thoughts about the situation? Worse, for every law or order we can do two things. How is it that the world does not explain itself, but God does? 1. Good question. Hume: how far are we willing Nothing exists prior to itself. Cause/effect = Designer/order = x (the Master)/ Cutie. There are entities in the universe that admit of intricate design, which design obviously has some end or purpose. The argument also states that things are caused to exist but they do not have to exist and that there is a chain of causes that goes back to the beginning of time. 5. Loudly! (The teleological argument or argument from design). In Asimov's story, Cutie uses reason and a lot of indirect evidence to reach his conclusion that the Master exists. God exists because the world is a showcase of His works and confirms His existence. Now suppose that I were to say that a carbon atom is to a biologist as a Ferrari is to an auto-phile (someone who loves automobiles). happen without conscious design. What is a covalent bond? Consider the following. You spend a few minutes and then walk on. God must exist. In other words, when carbon atoms bond together through covalent bonds, the outer electron is shared. STUDY. There is a hurricane and you are washed overboard. The cosmological argument argues that the presence of a God is proven by the existence of the universe. Premise 1. While McCloskey’s article may resonate with some atheists and seem to be a valid attack on the theist’s belief, it fails to strike any real blows and instead shows the disparity that comes with atheistic beliefs. Some of the three major arguments for the existence of God are cosmological, ontological, and teleological arguments. Things that cannot explain their own existence require something more concrete to explain them. "order" is in the eye of the beholder anyway. many tiny parts that are combined in impressively intricate and complex ways. Learn more. (Hume 1779 [1998], 35). 2. infinitely backward. Therefore, God, who does explain Himself, must exist. The teleological argument shows that the First Cause demonstrated by the cosmological argument is not some mindless "ground of being," but a personal, intelligent Mind; the cosmological argument shows that the Cosmic Designer is not a mere artificer or demiurge working on pre-existent materials, but the Creator of all space-time reality. The universe is like a watch: it contains Rather, the watchmaker designed For example, suppose someone tells Sherlock Holmes that he saw the suspect at the scene of the crime. What about us? In the same way, it seems obvious that Cosmological and Teleological Arguments. In fact, the teleological argument is an inductive argument. 2. cosmological argument, from an Arabic word meaning 'eternal') asserts that the universe has a beginning and as everything with a beginning has a cause, the universe must have one itself. For example, clams have shells that protect their bodies. - Cosmological Argument (First Cause Argument) - Teleological Argument (Design Argument) - Ontological Argument Only God can be the sufficient explanation for the infinite orders of the universe. Would you say that these artifacts or things that admit of intricate design and beauty are no more than chance formations of stalagmites and stalactites which have unusual formation rates? A problem with the teleological argument; that there is an effect does not establish the identity or certainty of existence of a particular cause. cosmological definition: 1. involving or relating to cosmology (= the study of the nature and origin of the universe ): 2…. A Sample Cosmological Argument. God is the necessary being who gives "existential support" to the world that consists of contingent beings, beings whose existence is not self-guaranteed. You are reading this material. The effect cannot be greater than the cause; a lessor power or intelligence cannot create a greater more sophisticated design. What is it? But it seems clear that order can The answer must be that God made them according to His specifications. In which case, we may simply say that the world explains its own being. Teleological and Cosmological Arguments. But no one shows up. Human beings did not create themselves or the orders of the universe. Not convincing, huh? The article begins with the Cosmological Argument from Contingency, then moves on to the Kalam Cosmological Argument, then the Teleological Argument for Fine-tuning, and then wraps up with some point/counter-point discussion. In symbolic notation, 2/12 = x/24. The same is true of our existence in the world. The first-cause argument begins with the fact that there is change in the world, and a change is always the effect of some cause or causes. 3. "What a coincidence," you think to yourself while you look over the second Ferrari. Three Major Arguments for God’s Existence. Premise 2: We can find the precise answer to the problem, 2/4=3/x (x must be 6) because the components and relations are rigidly specified and defined. The teleological argument fares a little better, even though it relies on experiences which we can all have and agree upon. Test. Then you walk on. God exists because the world is a showcase of His works and confirms His existence. It is not uncommon for humans to find themselves with the intuitionthat random, unplanned, unexplained accident justcouldn’t produce the order, beauty, elegance, andseeming purpose that we experience in the natural world around us. The Cosmological and Teleological Arguments 1512 Words | 7 Pages. A design is evidence that there is a purpose to be served; a watch has an intricate design for the purpose of telling time. Spiders have the capability to spin complex webs to catch prey. It's not too loud.". Sherlock and the prosecuting attorney can make a case that the suspect committed the crime, a strong case even without eye-witness testimony. The mistake comes in when we conclude that God is the only possible cause of those effects. Something is up. grounded in experience. 6. 4. Learn. The bad luck we had on the days we stepped on the cracks of the sidewalk could be due to other causes, not stepping on the cracks. We cannot know with certainty that our idea of God corresponds to the real thing or is even caused by Him. 1. 5. Although in Western philosophy the earliest formulation of a versionof the cosmological argument is found in Plato’s Laws,893–96, the classical argument is firmly rooted inAristotle’s Physics (VIII, 4–6) andMetaphysics (XII, 1–6). Here's where the going gets fun. For every effect or order that admits of design, there must be a cause that sufficiently explains the order considered as an effect. I have a daughter who likes rock and roll. Premise 2. that nothing in the watch is there by chance. There must be some cause sufficient to explain WHY and HOW all these Ferraris got here. that nothing in the watch is there by chance. This is the argument from motion or change (the two terms are equivalent as if you move from A to B then you have changed). We can get it fixed," she counters. The Teleological Argument This argument might also be called the argument from design. It is obvious when you examine a watch Philosophy: cosmological and teleological argument. Aquinas offered five ways to prove the existence of God, of which the first three are forms of the cosmological argument - arguments from motion, cause and contingency. First, explain in your own words what a teleological proof is. But, think of the matter this way. "I told you; it will blow a speaker," I reply. Answer: The word teleology comes from telos, which means "purpose" or "goal. The following is a typical "conversation" between my daughter and me. Created by. Let's see if we can come up with an argument that uses circumstantial evidence rather than eye-witness accounts. The argument is an argument that has the form of an analogy. Then give a creative example someone might use in arguing for it. 3. There is beauty in the world which is a mystery unless we conclude that someone (God) put it there. How exciting," you say to yourself and spend a good thirty minutes looking it over and marveling at its beauty and precision. What you need is a concrete answer which is, Turn down the machine because I say so!". And that's what we're going to do in the next argument. Objections to the Thomas Aquinas’ Second “Way” Premise 1: Nothing causes itself; everything is caused by something else. Maybe we cannot get God to take center stage, but there may be something just as good. You know I like to listen to it on your system," she yells while gyrating to the music. First, we can designate a specific cause or god to it, in which case we end up with more gods than the Greeks ever thought of having. Have we gone wrong in thinking that there is a God in the same way that Cutie thinks that the converter is the creator of himself and the space station? I'm enjoying your stereo. So, let's not worry too much about the criticism of mystical experience. The Cosmological Argument varies from the Teleological Argument for the existence of God. When we make the judgment that God is the cause of the experiences which we hypothesize are creations of His, that judgment is suspect. Terms in this set (20) What is the design argument . 5. Flashcards. Because the world, or our experience of it at any point of our analysis, can always be considered as effects that need to be explained by some prior cause. We use these kinds of arguments all the time. many tiny parts that are combined in impressively intricate and complex ways. You decide to examine it and set out on an all-day excursion. The reason for this broad pastoral appeal is that these arguments begin with commonplace facts about the world and … In a nutshell form, if p then q, q, therefore p. A great many of us think this way; if John is a bad dude then we will expect bad behavior from him. The argument from indirect experience. How can we explain our existence by looking at facts in the world and facts about ourselves? Arguments for and against the existence of a Creator abound, but two of these stand above the rest. Then we' What if the items found in the cave (all except the cups of coffee and the paintings) were made in 1990 (there are dates of manufacture on them). Conclusion: Ferraris just don't appear out of nowhere in such great numbers. For example the fact that humans have opposable thumbs is not explained by God, it has been I can bet that you know what I say next. Here's an everyday form of it analogous to the real thing. In mathematics, the arguments can give us precise answers. Match. You're going to blow a speaker," I shout at her over the blare from a song of Crash Test Dummies. God. The teleological argument ... but in combination with other arguments such as cosmological arguments and evidence from mystical experience, he thinks it can. At best, it shows that God may exist (not that He does exist), and at worst, that there are an innumerable number of gods (some good, some bad), one god for each effect noted. The main arguments for the existence of God are, in various forms: the ontological argument, the cosmological argument and the teleological argument. There are countless other causes which could account for the effects. First Cause isn't necessarily the God of Western religions. It is a bond in which the electron of the outer orbital is shared by another atom. Which is, "The deep reason is that you will turn it down because I say so! the watch such that each component has a specific purpose. The carbon atom is a miracle of design. Here's the argument in a nutshell analogy form: cause/effect = designer/design (purpose) = God/laws of nature, the beautiful, man. The answer is no. With the argument from mystic experience, the direct encounter with God seemed to be all that we needed. I have a stereo that is a good one. Just like the other two. Islamic philosophy enriches thetradition, developing two types of arguments. Rather, a Designer gave each part of For Cutie, the best explanation for the placeholder x is the Master. inconceivable; option (2) contradicts Premise 1. The universe has many identifiable orders that enable life to form and flourish on the earth. "I don't want to have to get my stereo fixed. But, in only another one hundred yards, there is another Ferrari, just exactly like the other one. Premise In 1928 and 1930, FR. Sandra LaFave . There must be some deeper reason." Maybe we cannot get God to take center stage, but there may be something just as good. 3. However, the telos, or “purpose” aspect, veers from the cosmological … We could go on forever with this line of conversation. Hume What other answer could suffice? genesis 1:1. Nothing causes itself; everything is caused by something else. is an argument by analogy (an inductive argument) and thus can at best And many people find themselvesconvinced that no explanation for that mind-resonancewhichfails to acknowledge a causal r… Thomas Ontological Argument (God’s existence provable from the very definition of God). Now in a world of random cosmic goo, we might expect to find a few carbon atoms by chance. Suppose I were to argue to prove the existence of gremlins. Moral argument (God needed to underpin right and wrong). "Yes, I enjoy work, but I don't want to spend money needlessly," I say. A carbon atom is a wonderful thing, biologically. Thomas Aquina gave 5 different types of cosmological argument. Premise "Katie, you are playing my stereo too loudly. 4. This Designer is God. evacarty. Thomas Aquinas, in his Summa theologiae, presented two versions of the cosmological argument: the first-cause argument and the argument from contingency. So, the teleological argument only shows that God at one time existed, that He may exist now, but not that He does exist. The We know that, in criminal trials, indirect or circumstantial evidence is more reliable than eye-witness accounts. You decide to explore the cave inasmuch as it would offer a refuge in case of another hurricane. The earth orbits the sun in a specific orbit preferable to living organisms. The teleological argument just is not logically tight enough for us. For example, suppose we were asked to determine the value of x (an unknown) in an equation. There are devices on the space station which admit of design; that is, there are instruments that clearly are designed to achieve some purpose (telos means end, order, goal or design). You are a master detective on a summertime cruise around the world. we understand the watchmaker concept because we have experience of watchmakers. We have some experience of the world right now. This Designer is God. He proposed a version of the teleological argument based on the accumulation of the probabilities of … Is it possible to prove or disprove God? It could very well be that He is not the cause. So the argument's a bit stilted. Nor does it sound reasonable to say that the orders and designs created themselves. establish its conclusion with probability, not certainty. "Wow! In fact, every one hundred yards, as far as you can see, there is a Ferrari. We know that, in criminal trials, indirect or circumstantial evidence is more reliable than eye … B. You do not come to the conclusion that you are still alone. nothing in the universe is here by chance. The argument from motion, the argument from contingency, the argument from causation, the argument from degrees and the Teleological Argument. All are flawed. Premise 2: Either (1) the chain of causes extends infinitely backward, or (2) there is a First (Uncaused) Cause. Teleological Argument. "So. There is even a hot cup of freshly brewed coffee on the counter of the stove. Only, in your finger, there are billions upon billions of them. In brief detail, the Cosmological Argument explains in detail on how event will cause another event or effect. "Don't worry, dad. Spell. 2. Our hope in this article is that those who are new to these arguments might come away seeing the power and potency of these arguments when dealing with … They just didn't appear on the scene as randomly caused results of some natural processes; there are simply too many of them. In chemical terms, it consists of many kinds of atoms in various configurations. But this leads us to Descartes' argument for God. the premise of causality has been arrived at via a posteriori (inductive) reasoning Aquinas was influenced by Aristotle's approach to causation. A cosmological argument, in natural theology and natural philosophy (not cosmology), is an argument in which the existence of God is inferred from alleged facts concerning causation, explanation, change, motion, contingency, dependency, or finitude with respect to the universe or some totality of objects. Hume By knowing the placeholders and their relations to one another, we can use that knowledge to determine the unknown factor x to be 4. It is his Ace of trump. Order or design indicates a purpose for the design, a telos or goal to be achieved. Question: "What is the Teleological argument for the existence of God?" For the full argument, see the notes on Hume. At any rate, the good thing about such bonds is that they allow carbon atoms to form long strings making the existence of proteins possible. Amazingly, you find some floating debris, drift around for days hanging on to it, wash up on a small tropical island and slowly make your way to the central part of the island seeking fresh water and food. The chain of causality cannot extend Cosmological arguments come in several different types. the universe a special purpose. Cosmological argument (the world can’t be self-caused or uncaused, it needs a First Cause (God). Sherlock finds evidence at the crime site such as footprints which match the suspect's shoes, threads which match the fabric of the suspects clothing, a knife with the suspect's fingerprints on it and a credit card with the suspect's name on it. 2. When you enter the cave, you notice something strange right away. And there's another Ferrari. Like my daughter, someone could always ask, how does that explanation of the world explain itself or is sufficient? I'm not going to hurt your stereo. The 1. Premise 2. The effect cannot be greater than the cause; a lessor power or intelligence cannot create or cause a greater more sophisticated design. Our eyes are designed so that we can see. Why not? No way. the universe a special purpose.
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