Once again, Hannibal's victory encouraged more Gallic tribes to join him. The towns of southern Hispania were subdued by Carthage. 1. Zapoznaj się z przykładami tłumaczeń 'Second Punic War' w zdaniach, posłuchaj wymowy i przejrzyj gramatykę. - Contact Us - Search - Recent - About Us -  Subscribe in a reader - Join our Google Group Fought between the 3rd century BC and the 2nd century BC during the height of the Hellenistic Period, the Punic Wars saw the clash between the two superpowers of the … The Second Punic War. We do not know which pass Hannibal used, and the climate has changed in the intervening centuries, making even the best argued route unreliable. For a moment, Rome looked to be almost defenceless. Democratic groups won in this battle. In northern Italy, an uprising of the Celtic started after the last battle. On the Roman right wing, Paullus commanded the Roman cavalry, 2,400 strong, guarding the River flank, while on the left, Varro commanded the 3,600 allied cavalry, up against the hill of Cannae. The main part of the population of the Carthaginian colonies in Spain was the Iberian tribes. He also had to prepare his army for battle - the war in Sicily had not seen great set piece battles. Battle of Lilybaeum – A Roman fleet of 20 quinqueremes defeated a Carthaginian fleet of 35 galleys. South of the river Ebro, Sagunto was only sea town (it was Hellenized Iberian city), which did not obeyed to Carthaginians, but it entered into an alliance with Rome. Publius failed to prevent Hasdrubals (brother of Hannibal) to make connection with Hannibal’s army. In Rome, this caused fights between various political groups. Marcellus's assault on the city was a predictable failure, and he decided to split the Roman forces. Hanno was captured, as was Indibilis, a Spanish leader who was to play a major part in the war. Hannibal too was soon to return to Carthage. The Senate took advantage of Carthage's difficulties in the Mercenary War to seize Sardinia. See Ebro Treaty. Despite this setback, 208 was to see another Punic expedition from Spain to Italy. Carthage needed a solution to improve its weakened economy, after receiving a heavy blow with the loss of Sicily. This soon left Hannibal with the problem of how to escape from the area. Hasdrubal chose diplomatic, rather than military, solutions to conflict with Rome but was assassinated by a servant in 221 BCE and command then went to Hannibal Barca (l. 247-183 BCE, Hamilcar's oldest son). Scipio now turned his attention to Africa. At Carthage the 'peace party' came to the fore, and a delegation was sent to Scipio to negotiate an end to the war. Faced with a two consul army, Hasdrubal attempted a retreat, but got lost and was caught by the Romans pinned against the River Metaurus. Rome thought it would be easy to defeat Hannibal, but Hannibal was full of surprises, including his manner of entering the Italic peninsula from Spain. Capture of Malta – Roman army under Tiberius Sempronius Longus conquers the Carthaginian-held island of Malta. The strategy of the Romans was such that the war was being waged on the opponent’s territory, and in that purpose one army landed in Africa and the other army in Spain. However, with their main army destroyed, it was the impact on Roman morale that would have been important. Still, a lot was happening in the Carthage backyard, i.e. Hannibal was out numbered but he had a strong cavalry and he centralized command unlike the Romans who had two rival generals. His task was made easier by the Carthaginian commander, who dismissed Muttines and replaced him with his own son. South of the Ebro Carthaginian conquests made before the war were still only loosely controlled, while the area north of the Ebro had been smashed through by Hannibal. While this war was a lot shorter than the First Punic War, it is most well known for the Carthage leader Hannibal who caused massive damage to the Romans. See Carthaginian-Macedonian Treaty. The Roman constitution proved to be unsuitable for emergency wartime conditions. For some time, Hannibal stayed near the city and after that, he retreated to Campania and headed to the south. However, there were moments when it might have failed. Gaius Flaminius Nepos then decided to follow Hannibal without waiting for more army. Carthage responded by raising yet another army, with many survivors of the debacle of the camps. The ground between the two armies was an apparently flat plain, with no risk of ambush, but Hannibal found a hidden gully, where towards the end of December 218 BC he placed a force of 2,000 men under his brother Mago. In 209 BC, 80-years-old Fabius Maximus occupied Tarentum. A map illustrating the campaigns of the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE). Although Rome did nothing to help Saguntum, she did sent a delegation to Carthage over the winter. The two scouting commanders met at the battle of Ticinus (November 218 BC), a small-scale battle notable only as the first of Hannibal's battles on Italian soil. Hannibal's plan is much better known. Punic Wars > Second Punic War. In the Second Punic War, various Roman commanders faced Hannibal, leader of the forces of Carthaginians, their allies, and mercenaries.Four major Roman commanders made a name for themselves in the following main battles of the second Punic War. By continuing to use the portal, you agree to receive cookies. The other Consul for the year, Sempronius Longus, was ordered north from Sicily with his army, and managed the impressive feat of travelling most of the length of Italy with his army in forty days, apparently raising morale as he went. The Spanish and Celtic infantry were to slowly retreat in the face of the Roman legions, while the Punic cavalry defeated the Roman and Latin horse. Scipio started the year with another victory, this time over the army of Hasdrubal Barca at the battle of Baecula. Hannibal and the Second Punic War, 218-201BC Audio-Visual Resources. What happened now is not entirely clear. Once the Romans were in place at the other end of the defile, Hannibal marched his troops back around the hills, where by daybreak they were in place on the reverse side of the hills, hidden to the Romans, who marched straight into the trap. What would have happened if Hannibal had arrived at Rome is impossible to tell. The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War, (by the Romans) The War Against Hannibal, or "The Carthaginian War", lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean. Marcus Claudius Marcellus was sent to Sicily and in 213 BC, he besieged Syracuse. By 220 the city of Saguntum, some way south of the Ebro, had allied with Rome. Flaminius died, although whether after panicking (Polybius) or after leading his men well (Livy), is unclear, and his army destroyed. After a night march the Roman army met the Spanish and engaged in a badly organised battle. Only a minor foothold remained to them north of the Ebro. At the end of 203 BC, the Punic position was grim. If it had come to a trial of military strength in front of the walls of Rome, the odds were against Hannibal. Several hours of fighting saw 50,000 Roman soldiers killed, a bloodbath rarely equalled in a single days fighting, even on the western front. He founded New Carthage (Carthago Nova) – a large fortress and trading port. After Agrigento fall, the Romans ruled over entire Island. However, Publius Cornelius Scipio had to stay in the northern Italy due to the rebel of Gauls. The Legions had yet to enter battle, and only the less important cavalry had been defeated. However, this plan had to be abandoned when Carthage responded to the opportunity presented by sending a army 28,000 strong to Sicily. At the Trebia he had managed to choice both the time and place of battle, and with an unorthodox plan was able to defeat a larger Roman force. Coming Soon: Hannibal and the Second Punic War, 218-201BC Lesson PowerPoints and other Classroom Resources. What is certain is that the crossing was highly dangerous. In the battle, at the river Ticinus (November 218 BC), Hannibal destroyed Scipio’s troops. This visible sign of Roman weakness encouraged many Gauls to join Hannibal, some deserting from Scipio's army, as would each of Hannibal's series of great victories. The war was fought entirely within Carthaginian territory, in modern northern Tunisia. Despite the capture of New Carthage and the departure of Hasdrubal Barca, the balance in Spain still appears to have favoured the Carthaginians. This cross was total surprise for the Romans. Hannibal route Second Punic War Publius Cornelius Scipio (Elder)– a Consul from 218 BC was already moving in the direction of Spain, because he wanted to fight with Hannibal. Hog Farm Bacon 00:31, 11 October 2020 (UTC) Consuls from 216 BC Lucius Aemilius Paullus (Fabius Maximus supporter) and Gaius Terentius Varro, a democrat and supporter of decisive action against Hannibal. Number of the rebels increased so much that it doubled the number of the Hannibal’s army. To guard against this, one consul, Servilius Geminus was sent to the east coast, the other, Caius Flaminius to guard the passes, each with a normal consular army. Near Aecae, Fabius with a new 40,000 strong Roman army came back into contact with Hannibal, but this time he was determined not to offer battle. Food supplies were one of the most important Hannibal tasks. Choose from 500 different sets of second punic war flashcards on Quizlet. Hannibal: The Second Punic War, is a two-player game that covers the conflict between Carthage and Rome, during the period of 218 to 195 B.C. Furious at Hannibal’s audacity, the Romans demanded that he be handed over for punishment. Hannibal: The Second Punic War, is a two-player game that covers the conflict between Carthage and Rome, during the period of 218 to 195 B.C. . After seventeen years, the war was over. After initial fighting that revealed serious Seleucid weaknesses, the Seleucids tried to turn the Roman strength against them at the Battle of Thermopylae (as they believed the 300 Spartans had done centuries earlier). 212 saw Hannibal's fortunes start to change. This confidence was probably aided by the 20,000 Celtiberian allies with the Roman armies. In 202 BC, happened the last battle at Zama, Massinisa- Numidian king offered great help to the Romans. The gradual twist happened when the Romans conquered several cities that belonged to Carthaginians. The crossing of the Pyrenees was apparently trouble free, although Hannibal reached Gaul with only 60,000 men, suggesting that some 20,000 men had fallen by the wayside. Despite their defeats, and the defections, Rome could still field far larger armies than Hannibal, and could replace losses much more easily. The Punic army collapsed quickly, with the exception of a small Spanish contingent, whose resistance allowed most of the Punic army to escape. For the next few years the two sides engaged in inconclusive manoeuvres. Roman morale was still not badly shaken. Cnaeus was killed, and his army overwhelmed. Hannibal kept the Romans in captivity and he released Roman allies to their homes. The momentous decision was made to recall Hannibal from Italy to lead the defence. Sprawdź tłumaczenia 'Second Punic War' na język Polski. https://www.shorthistory.org/ancient-civilizations/ancient-rome/ When the Second Punic War ended in 201 BC, one of the terms of the peace treaty prohibited Carthage from waging war without Rome's permission. This just left nature to defeat on the descent into Italy, a foe that Hannibal promptly overcame. Only one fleet arrived to reinforce him, in 214, and an attempt to reinforce from Spain met with eventual disaster, as we will see below. The remains of Roman troops were stopped and young military tribune Publius Cornelius Scipio Younger (son of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus) placed them in order. Mago's attack in the Roman rear was the turning point of the battle, although the Roman defeat was still not as severe as those to come. From the Pyrenees to the Rhone he was unopposed, but at the Rhone a sizeable Gallic army was waiting for him on the opposite bank of the river. Soon after that, Capua capitulated and was brutally punished by Romans. Cnaeus was forced to retreat in an attempt to return to safety, but the three Punic armies converged on his column and soon surrounded the Roman force. This time the Roman response was much more effective. The vast fleet, containing 400 transport ships guarded by a mere 40 warships, managed the crossing unmolested by the lacklustre Punic navy. SH website uses cookies to improve user experience. The government of Carthage was divided over their support for Hannibal in Spain and they were not really in favor of another war with Rome. Therefore, in the spring of 217 BC, he left winter camp so that he continued an offensive against Italy. Roman victory finally came in 210 BC. Even it had simply been pushed back too quickly, the Roman troops might have been able to turn and defeat the new threat. When the two armies scouts reported contact, both commanders went forward with larger scouting forces, in the case of Hannibal probably his 6,000 cavalry who outnumbered Scipio's forces. His troops were drastically reduced to 20.000 infantry and 6.000 equestrians. They decided to surrender under conditions of free retreat. Having last met him with his army at the Rhone, Hannibal must have assumed that he now faced a much larger army than he in fact did, Scipio having returned without his troops. Many soldiers were lost, many of them fell of their horses, only one elephant stayed alive. The renewed war took a more ruthless turn. Scipio's army reformed, never easy during a battle, and very rare in this period, and was able to face and hold Hannibal's veterans, before the Roman cavalry managed to outflank the Punic army. Hannibal's response has become a classic of military history. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. The Celtic and Spanish infantry were position slightly ahead of the rest of the army. This chronology includes references to some of the other fronts on which Rome was fighting at the same time and the importation of the stone Great Mother from Asia Minor that Rome brought home to help her reverse the trend and win the war. Denied battle, Scipio returned to the coast, where he send his army on to Spain, while himself returning to Italy to face Hannibal. Fabius now embarked on the strategy that he is most famous for. Carthage had to surrender all hostages to Rome. The war was now over. Spain, which definitely had a great impact on the final outcome of the war. In Apulia, Hannibal stayed a bit so that his troops can rest. However, Hannibal soon after that destroy Marcus Minucius army, and only the help of Fabius Maximus saved him from a total collapse. It prevented Carthage from using Sicily as a base to reinforce Hannibal in Italy. The Roman legions were a fearsome fighting machine, and the Spanish and Celtic troops came close to defeat. Even his closest collaborator Marcus Minucius was against this tactic, therefore during one occasion when Fabius Maximus was absent, Marcus Minucius managed to deliver a defeat to Carthaginians. In 210 BC new expedition led by Publius Cornelius Scipio (Junior), Consul’s son of 218 BC, proved to be a good general, despite his age, in the battles of Ticinus and Cannae and he enjoyed great authority. Eventually, Scipio had his army, probably 25,000-30,000 strong, ready for the invasion. Although the Second Punic War spread to Greece, the fighting there, known as the First Macedonian War (215-205 BC) was something of a side issue, and involved almost no Punic troops, and rarely more than a single Roman legion. Rome was expecting him to adopt the same passive approach that the Carthaginians had followed in the first war, waiting in Spain for the Roman attack. Hannibal established alliances with the tribes in the eastern Iberian Peninsula thanks to his diplomatic skills. They were also to pay an indemnity of 10,000 silver talents over a fifty year period, support Scipio's army until the peace was confirmed, and reduced their fleet to a mere ten ships. Hasdrubal was replaced in command in Spain by the twenty six year old Hannibal, the son of Hamilcar, who was elected by the army in Spain. Carthage responded by raising another two armies, a Numidian army under Syphax, and a Punic army led by Hasdrubal Gisgo. An army somewhere between 55,000 and 74,000 strong, led by Hasdrubal Gisgo, moved into a position that made it clear he wanted battle. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. Instead of using a single large army, Rome now began to field multiple smaller armies. Celtic people were not satisfied with Roman rule, and this help allowed Hannibal to rest his troops. 218-202 BC The concluding battle of the Second Punic War in 202 BC. This gained him a period of quiet, before individual tribesman started to attack the column. Scipio decided to move (it was too late) towards Rhône river. The government of Carthage was divided over their support for Hannibal in Spain and they were not really in favor of another war with Rome. Then he reorganized the troops according to the Roman model. The solution was a military expedition to obtain the riches of the Iberian Peninsula. Meanwhile, Hannibal was now faced with the task that has most firmly lodged in the imagination of the western world, the crossing of the Alps, complete with elephants. The Second Punic War took place in the years 218-201 BCE between Carthage and Rome. However, he was the superior general, and the war continued with Philip winning a series of minor victories, while the Macedonians suffered defeats in his absence. The capture of Syracuse did not give Roman uncontested control of Sicily. The resulting battle of Lake Trasimene (21 June 217 BC) was a crushing defeat for the Romans. An Imperial power had been born. Under the Hannibal’s influence, democratic reforms in Rome have been conducted after peace conclusion. These commanders were Sempronius, at the Trebbia River, Flaminius, at Lake Trasimene, Paullus, at Cannae, and Scipio, at Zama. The superior skills of both Hannibal and his army were by now starting to become clear. Dido was a Phoenician who fled and started the city of Carthage; Six story apartment buildings built of limestone; Cisterns, running water, indoor toilets, sewage system; Carthage Harbor. At night, he gathered together all the oxen captured by his army, tied burning torches to their horns, and drove them along a ridge near the pass. The Second Punic War happened between 218 BC and 201 BC. The garrison of Sicily was based on the two legions disgraced at Cannae, still exiled on the island until the end of the war. After crossing the Ebro, he spent a month subduing the tribes between the Ebro and the Pyrenees, and left a force 11,000 strong to keep the area quiet. Second Punic War Battles > Battle of Geronium. Flaminius was killed at the beginning of the battle. Hannibal learnt of the Roman presence in time to make his escape upstream, and despite his best efforts Scipio only found Hannibal's camp three days after it had been abandoned. Punic Wars. August – Hannibal conquered Catalonia. The resulting battle of Zama (202 BC) saw Hannibal finally defeated in battle. On the day of the battle, Scipio changed his deployment, and at first light deployed closer to the Punic camp. These terms were accepted, although whether this was genuine or just to allow time for Hannibal to return is unclear. The aim of this was to all the new Roman armies to gain experience together, while weakening Hannibal. For several days the two sides deployed for battle but did not fight. Surrounded, Hannibal's army was destroyed. The First Macedonian War (215–205) broke out when King Philip V pressed his ambitions in Illyria after he perceived a weakening of Roman power in the wake of Cannae. The Carthaginians, under the military leadership of their general, Hannibal, marched into Italy and won several battle. In the autumn of 211 BC Marcus managed to conquer Syracuse. Punic Wars. Rome forced Carthage to pay for damages after the war, so Carthage had very little left to pay the mercenaries. Gaius Flaminius defeat contributed to strengthening of the aristocratic party. Marcellus took one third of the army to attack other rebel communities, while he left the rest of the army under Appius Claudius Pulcher to conduct the siege of the city. In a dramatic scene in the Carthaginian senate, the leader of the Roman delegation declared war. See a map animation of the Second Punic War, in which Carthage nearly brings Rome to its knees through General Hannibal. However, by the end of the second century, large numbers of slaves were pouring into Rome, either as prisoners of war or purchased abroad by the new wealthy class of Romans who now employed large staffs of domestic servants or invested as slaves as business ventures. However, when Sagunto was occupied in 219 BC, the Romans sent a mission to Carthage with a demand to hand them over Hannibal. This was reflected in the Roman politics. It is also unclear what happened in Rome. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus was elected as a Consul in 205 BC, and in 204 BC, he came to Africa, and he landed not far from Utica with an army of 30.000 people, and with around 7.000 volunteers-veterans. See Second Punic War Battles. Hannibal overnight crossed the valley, occupied higher grounds, and deployed troops behind the hills. That's it from me, I think. After a delay while he strengthened his army, Hannibal moved out to offer battle. Although this new Punic army outnumbered the Roman force, Scipio was willing to offer battle. Romans began to see them as their vassals, such measures found support of the municipal aristocracy. Second Punic War Battles > Battle of Capua (211 BC). When another army, 14,000 strong and commanded by Hannibal's last brother, Mago, landed near Genoa, there was no panic, and the resulting campaign was low key, ending in the defeat of Mago, who died of his wounds while returning to Africa. The Romans guarding the pass saw the lights, and chased off after the oxen, allowing Hannibal and his main army to slip through the pass unopposed. The Romans besieged Capua. The key to the plan was the 8-10,000 Libyan heavy infantry, amassed in strong columns on both flanks, probably hidden from the Romans. The city defences were amongst the best then in existence, having been repeatedly improved, most recently with the aid of the mathematician Archimedes, who designed a range of successful siege engines. Finally, Sicilian grain played a major part in feeding both the population of Rome, and the many legions by then in the field. The Punic Wars were a series of wars between the Carthaginians and the Roman Republic that would catalyze the growth of the Roman territorial holdings as well as shape the ancient world for centuries to come. Then Hannibal returned to Apulia, where he wintered 217 – 216 BC. From that point, the position of Hannibal, who did not receive the necessary help from the Carthaginian oligarchy, became very difficult. Now for the first time the two sides met. Hannibal now learnt of the presence of Publius Scipio in the area. Sagunto resisted over the course of eight months. He entered into an alliance with the Gauls shortly after the Romans conquered them. Battles. Once the Gauls were in place to oppose his landing, the detachment already across the river attacked the Gallic camp, causing a panic which broke the Gallic army, and allowed Hannibal to get the rest of his army over the river. During the next 50 years Carthage had to pay a contribution of 10.000 talents, and it lost an entire navy (except 10 guard vessels). Roman power in Spain collapsed. With this in mind, it is argued that a march on Rome could hardly have had a worse result. Furious at Hannibal’s audacity, the Romans demanded that he be handed over for punishment. Hannibal was able to hold back his attack until almost the entire Roman army was stuck in the trap, only attacking when the front of the Roman column encountered his troops at the exit from the defile. In 195 BC, Hannibal had to run away from Carthage. However, other than a skirmish between their scouts, there was no fighting. The Romans were upset by this penetration of Carthaginians in northern Spain, and in 226 BC, they sent to this area a mission, which concluded a contract with Hasdrubal. The Romans, meanwhile, built up their strength and eventually counterattacked, leading to a Roman victory. The first encounters went Hannibal's way. Its seems a little counterintuitive to include the Second Punic War in Category:Third Punic War; As I mentioned, I rarely look at categories. The Second Punic War was often known as Hannibal’s War in Rome. His force joined with that of the injured Scipio and the Romans once again prepared to attack. In the event, a massacre committed by a Roman commander had more effect, but none of this stopped the siege, which ground on through 212 BC, increasingly favouring the Romans, first when they captured one part of the city, then when plague almost destroyed the Carthaginian army, and finally, towards the end of the year when the last great Carthaginian supply fleet turned away without reaching the city. On the other side of the Alps, Celtic people, who had promised to help him, welcomed Hannibal. Alps - Wikipedia During the Second Punic War in 212 BCE, the Ludi Apollinares ("Apollonian Games") were instituted in his honor, on the instructions of a prophecy attributed to one Marcius. Second Punic War Battles > Battle of Capua (211 BC). Neither consul had been killed, and their successors were appointed as normal. On the other hand, he counted that some Roman allies will fall off after their first success. Meanwhile, the army sent with Masinissa had defeated his rivals. As it was, the Spanish and Celts held out until the Roman infantry had turned into more of an armed mob than an army, and when the Libyans attacked, they were unable to mount a serious defence. Only a small part of the troops was saved by escaping, and among them was Marcus Terentius Varro. He stripped out the elderly and unfit from the garrison and replaced them with these new troops. Ebro Treaty. Carthage kept only its possessions in Africa, where it was allowed to wage war only upon the permission of Rome. When Romans demand was rejected by Punic, this was a trigger for war. The Barcid was the main driver of the conflict between Carthage and Rome. Cnaeus also soon came to grief. This impressed the Romans so much that against all customs Marcus was declared as second dictator. Shortly after quelling an uprising in Carthage, Hamilcar transferred its activities to Spain; counting that by exploiting the resources of this rich peninsula (precious metals, and soil fertility) will strengthen the power of the state and army for the forthcoming war with Rome. Hasdrubal was forced to flee to North Africa, Mago to Gades. Many Senators and military tribunes were left on the battlefield, including Lucius Aemilius Paullus. Hannibal's plan was successful. The cavalry on the wings would hold Hannibal's superior horse for long enough for the infantry to do its job and destroy the Punic infantry, thus ending the threat from Hannibal. Only after Hasdrubal had deployed his own troops did he realise that the Roman deployment had changed. With an army exhausted by the fighting, Hannibal's decision not to risk a rapid cross-country march is more understandable. The centre of their line contained 55,000 heavy infantry, along with 15,000 velites. The battle of Metaurus saw his army destroyed, and Hasdrubal himself killed. As the war in Italy shows, a commander who did not want to offer battle could not easily be forced to fight, but Hanno was defeated at the battle of Cissa (near modern Tarragona). Luckily, it turned out that the Gauls returned to their villages every night, and Hannibal was able to capture their strong positions overnight. The conflict decided about the primacy in the Mediterranean. Massalian people,which were long time rivals of Carthaginians, also encouraged them to go in war. Massinisa became more stronger thanks to the Numidia tribes – which were free and up until then these tribes were totally dependent of Carthage. One of histories great military adventures had come to a tame end. Anti-roman groups everywhere won. A second response was to send the Punic fleet to attack the Roman fleet at Utica, but this attack was bungled. One part of the Romans had been killed and the other part of the army cavalry thrown into the lake. Phoenician colonies appeared quite early, but Carthage did not paid much attention on them until it lost Sicily. The heart of the Punic province was a small area around New Carthage and Gades. In five months he had marched an army from Spain, all the way into northern Italy. However, neither effort met with success. Third Punic War + Third Punic War Links 10,000 legionaries from the centre of the Roman line were able to escape by breaking through Hannibal's own centre, but by then the battle was lost, and all they could do was make their escape. Hannibal’s plan was to unite with brother’s army, but his brother Hasdrubal Barca was defeated in 207 BC at the river Metaurus where he was killed. The first and second Punic wars (264–241 bce and 218–201 bce) had effectively deprived Carthage of its political power. In 201 BC, a peace was concluded. Although he had not attacked Scipio, Hannibal had spent the forty days productively, securing new supplied, and scouting out the area where any battle would take place. Even so, the battle lasted for three hours, and Hannibal's own losses were not trivial. The Second Punic War happened between 218 BC and 201 BC. The Senate decided on a last resort: two legions, which were formed of slaves. A cross through the Alps was particularly difficult (harsh climate and repeated Celts attacks), but at the cost of large losses, a brilliant military leader succeeded to cross the Alps. His battle plan was suitably simple. At the very beginning, Hannibals army broke small numbered Roman cavalry, while the Celts retreat a bit, but Hannibal surrounded them with the infantry. The Apennine mountains which divide Italy forced him to either move down the east coast into Picenum, or cross the Appenine passes into Etruria in the west. The Second Punic War (Spring 218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second of three wars between Carthage and the Roman Republic, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides. Later traditions of dissent between Varro and Paullus are probably inventions made in the knowledge of the disaster to come. Publius Cornelius Scipio accompanied his brother Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus to Spain, then he returned to Italy, in order to beat Hannibal at the Alps passages. The resulting battle of the Trebia saw Hannibal defeat a larger Roman force, probably of some 42,000 men. Romans stubbornly continued to struggle in Spain, considering it the main source of power, i.e. Polybius rightly regarded the latter action as unjustified and the subsequent Carthaginian resentment as a major cause of the Second Punic War. Publius was the first to be defeated. However, since the Senate refused even to negotiate with him, he finally achieved that he wanted: many tribes and cities of central and southern Italy turned on his side or they were thinking to go on his side. The Romans were trapped against the lake, unable to make any organised resistance. It was at this point that Hannibal finally marched on Rome, and for a brief period was camped outside the city, but by this point his appearance did not worry the inhabitants, and he was soon forced to march away, leaving Capua with no choice but to surrender. Punic survival was to rest on a battle between the two greatest commanders of the war. Still, a lot was happening in the Carthage backyard, i.e. The retreat turned into a rout under strong Roman pressure. Tel: +44 (0)24 7652 3023 Departmental Administrator: Mrs Susan Doughty Northern areas of the land were invaded by the Celts, which was partly mixed with the Iberians tribes. But Hannibal did not attacked Rome. In early 215 an attempt was made by Hasdrubal to lead another army along the land route to Italy, but this was defeated at the battle of Ibera. The massive Roman force outnumbered Hannibal by close to 30,000 men, and the battlefield would give no obvious advantage to Hannibal. The Second Punic War (also called the Second Carthaginian War) was the second of three conflicts, known collectively as “The Punic Wars,” fought between the ancient powers of Rome and Carthage — a powerful city and imperial entity located across the Mediterranean from Southern Italy in modern-day Tunisia. Most of the leadership in Cartha… The new war plan was counted on the depletion of the opponent, because it predicted an inevitable defeat in a decisive battle. Over the winter of 216-215 he captured Casilinum, making Capua less vulnerable to Roman assault, and in 212 he captured the city of Tarentum. In 209 BC, for some time, twelve Latin colonies refused to give army for defending Rome. ^ The term Punic comes from the Latin word Punicus (or Poenicus), meaning "Carthaginian", and is a reference to the Carthaginians' Phoenician ancestry. Hannibal set up a camp opposite them, and then send a detachment to secretly cross the river upstream. Across the end of May and June 217 BC, the two armies marched across Etruria, until Hannibal found an ideal location for an ambush at Lake Trasimene, where the road passed along a narrow stripe on land between the lake on one side and some hills on the other. Every effort was made so that line of defence was prepared to defend Rome. The rest of the battle was a massacre. So the Second Punic War, largest conflict on antiquity, is mainly known by epic battles like Cannae or Zama and great leaders – Hannibal Barca and Scipio Africanus. As soon as he took command, he believed that the military was ready to fight with Rome, which also was prepared for war. The Second Punic War was often known as Hannibal’s War in Rome.It was in a real sense the personal war of Hannibal. It was in a real sense the personal war of Hannibal. After that, Hannibal decided to move towards the Adriatic Sea in order to provide himself a broken connection with Carthage. These changes in the Roman economics and social order were particularly clearly demonstrated in mid-second century. However, Flaminius actions were well known to Hannibal who had well-organized scouts. Fabius also kept the allies so that they do not cross to the side of the Carthaginians. Hannibal besieged the town under the pretext that the Sagunto attacked one of the tribes, which were under Carthage authority. The battle of Cannae (2 August 216 BC), was one of the worst defeats in Roman history. The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War, (by the Romans) The War Against Hannibal, or "The Carthaginian War", lasted from 218 to 201 BC [2] and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean.This was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic, with the crucial participation of Numidian-Berber armies and tribes on both sides. See more ideas about punic wars, ancient warfare, ancient warriors. The Roman plan was simple. While his campaign in southern Italy continued with some success, elsewhere the war had turned decisively against Carthage. He still won some notable victories, destroying an army 16,000 strong in 212 BC, another 7,000 strong in 210 BC, and killing both of the Consuls for 208. With this in mind, Hannibal's campaigns in Spain in 221 can be seen as an attempt to capture more fertile lands to feed his army for Italy. According to some sources from the Roman army which numbered more than 50 000 people only 14 000 soldiers were saved. See Second Punic War Battles. The Roman army split into two, one third under Cnaeus, two thirds under Publius, and moved to face the three Punic armies. This new army moved east along the south coast of Sicily, occupying Agrigentum. The most powerful argument in favour of a march on Rome is that we know that Hannibal's chosen strategy failed, and Carthage lost war. If the Punic centre had been defeated, then Hannibal's army would have been rendered harmless. Control of finances allowed the payment of contributions, without burdening the citizens by excessive taxes – a discontent of oligarchic party and the Romans suspiciousness. The Mercenary War & The Second Punic War . Second Punic War (218-201 BC) The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War and (by the Romans) the War Against Hannibal, lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean. Publius Cornelius Scipio (Elder)– a Consul from 218 BC was already moving in the direction of Spain, because he wanted to fight with Hannibal. Although the Second Punic War spread to Greece, the fighting there, known as the First Macedonian War (215-205 BC) was something of a side issue, and involved almost no Punic troops, and rarely more than a single Roman legion. From this period, it was enhanced the control of the Senate over the allies (especially in the military). The majority of rebel cities quickly returned to the Roman side, and the island remained safe for the rest of the war. In the aftermath of the Roman victory, most communities north of the Ebro quickly defected to Rome. Despite this first setback, Roman morale remained good. Hasdrubal Barca, the overall Punic commander in Spain, led a small army in a quick raid against the Roman fleet, which caught out some Roman detachments, but was too small to remain safely north of the Ebro, and Hasdrubal retreated south, leaving Rome with a secure base in northern Spain. With Spain and Sicily both firmly in Roman hands, Carthage itself was now vulnerable, and in 203 BC, Hannibal, with at least some of his army, sailed back from southern Italy to Carthage for the final confrontation of the war. Scipio, now injured, retreated across the River Trebia and encamped, awaiting reinforcements. In the centre of the Celts, Hannibal deployed its troops in a crescent-shaped, and on the sides of the city were selected Carthaginian infantry and cavalry. Hannibal's plan relied on his gaining support amongst the Gauls, and he could thus not back down from this first Roman threat, while Scipio acted as all Roman generals of the time did, secure in his belief that his troops were superior. This was the first case in Roman history that imperium was granted to an individual instead of the magistrate. Punic Wars - Punic Wars - Campaigns in Sicily and Spain: Concurrently with the great struggle in Italy the Second Punic War was fought out on several other fields. The invasion force set sail for Africa early in the spring on 204 BC. Punic Wars - Punic Wars - Campaigns in Sicily and Spain: Concurrently with the great struggle in Italy the Second Punic War was fought out on several other fields. Second Punic War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. Third Punic War + Third Punic War Links From now on Rome was able to call on Numidean allies. What is clear is that on Varro's day of command, the Romans decided to offer battle, and Hannibal accepted. Only two decades after one of the most costly wars of antiquity, Rome and Carthage were once again at war. In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and … Rome started with preparations for the annexation of weak states. In the centre were the 20,000 Celtic and 4,000 Spanish infantry. Regardless, the treaty did not last. This weakness may explain the Carthaginian reaction. Scipio could face him with just under 50,000 men, although only half of these were Roman or Italian, the rest being the same Celtiberians who had deserted the Roman cause in 211. By then, the Roman and Latin cavalry had been defeated, and the Legions were surrounded. There he was joined by Masinissa, king of the Maesulii, one of the Numidian tribes, who had been recently defeated by Syphax, a pro-Punic rival, but who was later to provide invaluable help. A map illustrating the campaigns of the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE). Hannibal hoped to provoke Fabius into an attack, but he was not to be shifted from his plan, and simply watched Hannibal ravage the area from the safety of the surrounding mountains. Since 218 BC, military operations did not ended not even in Spain. This attack apparently persuaded the Gallic chieftains that continued attacks were not worth the risk, and they offered a truce. Hannibal's plan relied on the fighting ability of his men. A Roman supply convoy fell into Punic hands during the winter, and Roman demands for it's return were refused, effectively reopening the war. Second Punic War Background Carthaginian-Macedonian Treaty. Fabius Maximus avoided decisive battles, and was satisfied with small skirmishes, but he attacked mainly Carthaginian chamber. One answer was to form armies of Italian troops with Carthaginian commanders, but this armies were generally unsuccessful, leaving Hannibal's own army as the only one truly capable of defeating Roman troops. Humiliated after the First Punic War Carthage was still thinking about revenge on the Romans. The interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (241–218 bce) The loss of naval supremacy not only deprived the Carthaginians of their predominance in the western Mediterranean but exposed their overseas empire to disintegration under renewed attacks by Rome. The Mercenary War (240-237 BC) Carthage had to pay its mercenary soldiers after the First Punic War, even though Carthage lost the war to Rome. The Romans tried to defend themselves by forming a circle, but they could not resist Hannibal’s army, which broke their line of defence – general extermination. Nevertheless, its commercial enterprises expanded rapidly in the 2nd century bce, exciting the envy of Rome’s growing mercantile community. Their city had suffered too much in the war and in its aftermath during the ‘Mercenary War’ and there was a strong pro-peace party in the city. At first, the Romans had a success, they occupied Sagunto, but in 211 BC, both Scipio’s brothers were defeated and killed by Carthaginians. 1. Scipio was in Massalia when he heard the news of Hannibal’s movement. Immediately after the battle, he began his march to Italy, which suggests that his army was not badly damaged by the battle, and it may be that a truer image of the battle would be as a delaying action fought by Hasdrubal to allow his army to begin it's march. This was start of series of war conquests, which Romans led later. This success seriously weakened Fabius's prestige in Rome, and for a brief period his deputy Minucius was given shared command. In 212 BC, Romans besieged Capua but in order to distract them Hannibal headed to Rome. Naval Battles. Hasdrubal Barca negotiated with his Celtiberian allies, who agreed to leave the battlefield. In this 60 Second History, we look at the Second Punic War - one of the most famous conflicts of the ancient world. The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second of three Punic Wars between the Roman Republic and Carthage, with the participation of Macedonia and Syracuse polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides. The years immediately after the war saw Rome gain control over large areas of Greece and defeat the successors to Alexander the Great. Ebro Treaty. Minucius quickly managed to get his half of the army into serious danger, only to be rescued by Fabius. Punic Wars > Second Punic War. The Allobroge tribe, which occupied the pass, did not respond to Hannibal's attempts at negotiation, and were clearly intending to raid his army as it passed along the narrow pass, vulnerable and strung out along a narrow path. He was satisfy with the fact that he ravaged surrounding fields. Flaminius path led through a narrow valley, which was lying between the mountains and Lake Trasimene. The Punic Wars were a series of wars between the Carthaginians and the Roman Republic that would catalyze the growth of the Roman territorial holdings as well as shape the ancient world for centuries to come. The siege had to be abandoned, while the messages were intercepted. It was one of the deadliest human conflicts of ancient times. After successfully started operations in 229 BC, Hamilcar was killed, and at the head of the army came his son-in-law Hasdrubal the Fair. One contingent was sent into Numidea to restore Masinissa to power while the rest under Scipio marched towards Carthage herself. According to this contract, the Carthaginians were pledged not to cross the Ebro river for military purposes (undoubtedly, this was more favorable to Carthage). Second Punic War Background Carthaginian-Macedonian Treaty. Updated March 08, 2017 Ultimately, Rome won the Second Punic War, but it was not a foregone conclusion. After defeating two small Punic forces, Scipio settled down to besiege Utica. The First Macedonian War (215–205) broke out when King Philip V pressed his ambitions in Illyria after he perceived a weakening of Roman power in the wake of Cannae. The Barcid was the main driver of the conflict between Carthage and Rome. For several days, Senate deliberated on the situation. When he did arrive before the city in 211 BC, there was never any danger that he could take the city, or force a settlement, but by then Roman fortunes had recovered. Hannibal was also weakened by losses and he tried to take advantage of the Roman defeat in the diplomatic purposes. Finally, the rest of the city fell. He started marching from New Carthage, in the spring 218 BC, crossed the Pyrenees and marched along the coast. This is an incomplete list of battles of the Second Punic War, showing the battles on the Italian peninsula and some in Africa, in Sicily and Hispania.. 218 BC Summer: Battle of Lilybaeum – A Roman fleet of 20 quinqueremes defeated a Carthaginian fleet of 35 galleys. In the Senate, a conservative group of Fabius Maximus Cunctator still played a major role. ^ The term Punic comes from the Latin word Punicus (or Poenicus), meaning "Carthaginian", and is a reference to the Carthaginians' Phoenician ancestry. Rich grave of a warrior or priest from Bronze age unearthed... Secret passage and skeleton from Hittite period founding in Turkey, Despite successes, the Carthaginians were unable to break the resistance of the Romans who were defending their territory, The Roman army was composed of free citizens, The allies were leaving Rome as long as Hannibal was successful, Finally oligarchy did not provided Hannibal necessary assistance. Having defeated every army sent against him, it is natural that Hannibal would have expected to be able to repeat the performance. - Cookies. Their new commander, Marcus Valerius Laevinus, one of the consuls for the year, decided to launch an attack on Agrigentum. The reaction in Carthage was panic. This is my first solo timeline so let's see how it goes. The loss of their last major base ended Carthage's interest in Sicily. On his arrival in Sicily, Scipio settled down to train his army. Two years later, in 209 BC Tarentum also fell to Rome. 264 to 241 bc First Punic War; 218 to 202 bc Second Punic War; 149 to 146 bc Third Punic War; Carthage. At the head of these groups was popular Gaius Flaminius Nepos, which was elected as consul in 217 BC. See Second Punic War Battles. Only one squad of 6,000 people took the hill, but they were surrounded. Hannibal's plan was more complex. The next, gloomy morning, when the Roman army broke out, without expecting that anything will happen, the Roman army was attacked from all sides. When they were in place, he launched an attack across the river. Marcellus chanced across a Syracusan army which had broken out from Syracuse, marching to join with the Carthaginians, and was able to destroy it, before retreating back to Syracuse, closely followed by the Carthaginian force. Minucius returned his power to Fabius. Why was there a Second Punic War? The last real threat to Rome was over. He was a princeps of Senate and he was recognized as a saviour of homeland. Why was there a Second Punic War? Hannibal moved from Apulia to Samnium and from there he moved to Campania where he collected food supplies. Rome emerged from the war utterly transformed. After the war Rome had gained Spain, secured control over the Mediterranean islands, and seen her first direct involvement in Greece. Admittedly, this army was now only 26,000 strong, 20,000 less than crossed the Rhone, but what was left was probably the elite of the Carthaginian army. Very well-written article covering a large topic. Otherwise, Rome was generally on the offensive in Spain, but only slow progress was made. However, in comparison the Roman losses were devastating. The fate of the conflict was resolved in Italy: In its second stage, this war was not defensive but conquering (southern Spain and entire Sicily after 210 BC belonged to him). The Second Punic War broke out in B.C. The Second Punic War (also called the Second Carthaginian War) was the second of three conflicts, known collectively as “The Punic Wars,” fought between the ancient powers of Rome and Carthage — a powerful city and imperial entity located across the Mediterranean from Southern Italy in modern-day Tunisia. For years he had won victories with his experienced army, but now he faced the best Roman army of the war, while he himself commanded a makeshift army, containing remnants of the forces already defeated by Scipio supported by those of his veterans that Hannibal had managed to get back from Italy. This move caused a legendary panic in Rome “Hannibal ante portas”. Punic Wars, also called Carthaginian Wars, (264–146 bce), a series of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire, resulting in the destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean.
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